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你的办公室对你的健康有害吗?开放的办公室,公共的咖啡壶,甚至你的工作椅都会对你的精神和身体健康造成伤害。看看专家怎么教你规避这些风险!

Is your office hazardous to your health? Open floor plans, the communal coffee pot and even your work chair can all wreak havoc with your mental and physical health. Top experts and the latest research give you 12 reasons to be extra careful!

意外事故

Accidents happen

© kynny/Getty Images

如果你有笨手笨脚的倾向,那么在工作中登高、滑倒、绊倒和跌倒会让办公室成为一个危险的地方。根据美国劳工统计局(Bureau of Labor Statistics)的数据,2011年需要休假的工伤中,肌肉扭伤、拉伤和撕裂占38%。最常见的是升降伤,占22%,其次是摔伤。美国俄克拉荷马州塔尔萨市(Tulsa)霍根评估公司(Hogan investments)高级顾问迈耶(Kevin Meyer)说,压力过大、工作过度和过度劳累的员工更有可能导致工作场所发生事故和受伤。 

Lifting, slipping, tripping and falling at work make the office a dangerous place if you’re prone to clumsiness. Muscle sprains, strains and tears accounted for 38 percent of injuries requiring time off from work in 2011, according to the Bureau of Labor Statistics. Back injuries from “lifting and lowering” were the most common, at 22 percent, followed by injuries from falls. “Stressed-out, overworked and overtired employees make workplace accidents and injuries more likely,” says Kevin Meyer, senior consultant at Hogan Assessments in Tulsa, Ohlahoma, U.S., a firm that specializes in employee productivity. 

专家建议寻找缓解压力的方法——冥想和锻炼,用双腿而不是背部举重来减少受伤的风险。

Experts recommend finding ways to relieve stress - meditation and exercise, and lifting with your legs — not your back — to reduce the risk of injuries.

一个开放的办公环境

An open office plan

© ShutterStock

企业为了加强团队间的合作更加亲密,创建了开放式办公室,员工可以共享一个空间。问题是,所有这些同志情感交流都可能适得其反。根据几项研究,高噪音水平和缺乏隐私会增加压力,降低工作环境的满意度,其中一项研究发表在《应用心理学杂志》(Journal of Applied Psychology)上。这项研究让40名办公室职员在模拟典型办公室声音的低强度噪音下工作3个小时。对照组则保持沉默。然后给两组人都出了他们不会的数学题。那些在低噪音环境下工作的人只尝试了几次就放弃了,而在安静环境下工作的人则继续工作。

Team-building trends in corporate environments gave rise to open office plans, where employees share a common space. Problem is, all that camaraderie can backfire. High noise levels and a lack of privacy increases stress and reduces satisfaction with the work environment, according to several studies, including one published in the Journal of Applied Psychology. The study subjected 40 clerical workers to three hours of low-intensity noise that simulated typical office sounds. A control group experienced silence. Both groups were then given unsolvable (unbeknownst to them) math problems. Those who were subjected to the low-level noise gave up after only a few attempts, while workers from the quiet environment plugged on.

专家建议受噪音困扰的员工戴上耳机或耳塞。

Experts recommend employees who are bothered by noise wear headphones or ear buds.

绿色办公室

Green offices

© ShutterStock

丹佛国家犹太健康中心(National Jewish Health)的哮喘专家内森·拉宾诺维奇(Nathan Rabinovitch)博士说,节能工作场所保护了环境,节约了能源成本,但它们也可能让哮喘患者的呼吸变得更加困难。我们如此高效地封锁了空气从屋顶和窗户进入的办公区域(这节省了能源),以至于所有的东西都被困在里面,让人生病。拉比诺维奇说,地毯上产生的污染无处可去,它会进入肺部。

Energy-efficient workplaces protect the environment and save energy costs, but they may also make breathing more difficult for people with asthma, says Dr. Nathan Rabinovitch, an asthma specialist at National Jewish Health in Denver. “We’ve become so efficient at sealing off areas where air would come in (which saves energy) through the roof and windows that everything gets trapped inside, which makes people sick.” The pollution kicked up from carpeting has nowhere to go, and it settles into the lungs, Rabinovitch says.

如果你经常咳嗽、气喘或呼吸短促,向你的医生咨询药物,如吸入皮质类固醇。

If you suffer from frequent coughing, wheezing or shortness of breath, ask your doctor about medications such as inhaled corticosteroids.

带有细菌的男同事

Germy male co-workers 

© jacoblund/Getty Images

圣地亚哥州立大学和亚利桑那大学的微生物学家和科学家进行的一项研究表明,与同事共用一个办公室会使你面临交换细菌的风险,但如果你同事是男性,则更有可能发生这种情况。研究人员发现,男性办公室的细菌比女性办公室多10%到20%。微生物学家迈克尔·施密特说:“男性感染诺氏病毒的风险更大,因为他们通常不像女性在使用洗手间后那样严格注意手部卫生。”此外,一个男人的体型越大,传播的细菌也越多。

Sharing an office with co-workers puts you at risk for exchanging germs, but it’s more likely if your cube mate is male, according to a study conducted by microbiologists and scientists at San Diego State University and the University of Arizona. Researchers found 10 percent to 20 percent more bacteria in men’s offices than in women’s. “Men are at a greater risk for catching bugs like the norovirus as they often don't pay as strict attention to hand hygiene as women do after using the restroom,” says Michael Schmidt, a microbiologist at the Medical University of South Carolina who was not involved with the study. In addition, a man’s larger body size also gives him more bacteria to spread.

经常洗手,并用漂白剂清洁工作区域,以控制细菌。

Wash your hand frequently and clean your work areas with a bleach solution to keep bacteria in check.

公用咖啡壶

Communal coffee pot

© Fuse/Getty Images

施密特说,办公室的咖啡壶是仅次于日托中心的最有可能找到诺氏病毒的地方。诺病毒具有高度传染性,只需接触受感染者或通过受污染的食物或水即可传播。这种病毒引起胃痛、呕吐和腹泻,以及发烧和身体疼痛。施密特说:“积极注意用肥皂、水和/或酒精洗手液来洗手。

The office coffee pot is second only to day-care centers as the most likely place to find norovirus, Schmidt says. Norovirus is highly contagious and can be passed along simply by touching an infected person or through contaminated food or water. The virus causes stomach pain, vomiting and diarrhea, along with fever and body aches. “Aggressive attention to proper hand hygiene with soap and water and/or alcohol hand gel is a must to prevent you from ‘eating’ a dose,” Schmidt says.

生病的人在症状消失三天后才可以准备咖啡、午餐或切蛋糕。并在所有公共区域使用漂白剂。

“Anyone who’s been sick should not prepare coffee, lunch or cut cake until three days after their symptoms are gone. And use bleach on all common areas.”

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